Employment Benefits: Notes & Sources
Confidence Interval (also known as error bar) is the range of values that includes the true value 95% of the time. If the confidence intervals of two groups do not overlap, the difference between groups is considered statistically significant (meaning that chance or random variation is unlikely to explain the difference).
Race/Ethnicity: Federal standards mandate that race and ethnicity (Hispanic origin) are distinct concepts requiring 2 separate questions when collecting data from an individual. "Hispanic origin" is meant to capture the heritage, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of an individual (or his/her parents) before arriving in the United States. Persons of Hispanic ethnicity can be of any race. Communities Count's terms for racial/ethnic groups are derived from those used by the U.S Census Bureau in 2010.
- Communities Count terms: Hispanic, Non-Hispanic, White Non-Hispanic, Black, American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN), Asian, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (NHPI), White, and Multiple Race (Multiple). Persons of Hispanic ethnicity can be of any race and are included in other racial categories. Racial/ethnic groups are sometimes combined when sample sizes are too small for valid statistical comparisons of more discrete groups.
- 2010 Census terms: Hispanic or Latino, Not Hispanic or Latino, White alone (Not Hispanic or Latino), Black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, White, Some Other Race, and Two or More Races.
Too few cases to report: Survey data with 20 or fewer responses are not reported.
Distribution of Employment in King County
Washington State Data: Information on the percentage of private employers offering benefits is only available at the state level. However, 34% of all private wage & salary earners in Washington (excluding government employees & self-employed persons) lived in King County [Source: ACS, 2010]. According to the Washington State Employment Security Department, County Data Tables, https://fortress.wa.gov/esd/employmentdata/reports-publications/regional-reports/county-profiles/king-county-profile (2011),
- 35% of all firms in Washington State were in King County.
- 41% of all non-farm employees in Washington State live in King County (includes government employees).
- 32% of all employees (including farm) in Washington State live in King County (includes government employees).
Sample Characteristics: The 2011 Washington Employee Benefits Survey sampled establishments covered by Washington State unemployment insurance tax law that reported employment during the third quarter of 2010. With the exception of school districts and hospitals, most federal, state, and local government employers were excluded from these data. Private households were also excluded as employers. A company with multiple locations was counted as a single firm. Of 15,393 firms sampled, 8,309 valid responses (54%) were received.
Retirement Plan Totals: The summed percentages of types of retirement plans offered may total less than 100% if employers offer plan types other than defined-benefit or defined-contribution, and may total more than 100% if employers offer both.
Statistical Significance: Unless otherwise noted, any difference mentioned in the text is statistically significant (unlikely to have occurred by chance).
Statistical Tests: Because the data source for standard benefits did not provide variance or standard error data, no error bars or statistical tests are presented here.
- Primary Data Source for % of WA employers offering benefits, % of employees receiving benefits, and changes in premiums and % of premiums paid by employers: Washington State Employee Benefit Survey Report, Washington State Employment Security Department, Labor Market and Economic analysis, 2004 – 2011. 2011 data: Washington State Employee Benefit Survey Report, Washington State Employment Security Department, Labor Market and Economic analysis, May 2012; https://fortress.wa.gov/esd/employmentdata/docs/occupational-reports/2011-employee-benefits-report.pdf accessed 06/05/2012
- Health Care Benefits: Source on national increases in premiums and employee contributions for family coverage from 2000-2010: The Kaiser Family Foundation and Health Research and Educational Trust, “Employer Health Benefits; 2010 Summary of Findings,” available at: http://ehbs.kff.org/pdf/2010/8086.pdf, accessed 06/07/2012.
- Retirement Benefits: Source for shift from defined-benefit to defined-contribution retirement plans: B.A. Butrica, K.E. Smith, & E.J. Toder (2009). The disappearing defined benefit pension and its potential impact on the retirement incomes of baby boomers. Social Security Bulletin, 69:3.
Telecommuting: Employee-reported information on employer-sponsored telecommute programs came from the 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010 Washington State Population Surveys. http://ofm.wa.gov/sps/faq.asp
Employer-Provided Child Care: Employee-reported information on access to on-site child care and employer-sponsored child-care subsidies came from the 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010 Washington State Population Surveys. http://ofm.wa.gov/sps/faq.asp
Maps of King County covering a wide range of topics can be accessed at http://www.kingcounty.gov/operations/GIS/Maps.aspx#PH. Maps most immediately relevant to Communities Count are under the headings of Community data & demographics, Public health, and Environment & natural resources, but other maps should be useful as well (farmers markets, transit routes, walking and biking routes, parks, traffic counts, etc.).